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 COMPOSITION4 part-2

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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: COMPOSITION4 part-2   السبت أكتوبر 04, 2008 8:50 am


COMPOSITION4


Comprehension

Give short answers to these questions in your own words as far as possible. Use on complete sentence for each answer.

a- Which two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness of scientific research in industry?

One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedom of the individual research worker. In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out from effective contact with their fellow scientists either in other countries or in universities, or even, often though, in other departments of the same firm.

b- Why is some process in chemical industries never patented at all?

Because of chance discoveries which play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries

c- Why are some firms reluctant to borrow books from the libraries?

Because they are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book for fear the agents of other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.

Vocabulary

Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as they are used in the passage:

Weigh heavily against: prevent,

Lack: fall of

Effective: influential

Contact: communication

Fundamental: basic

Process: operation

Applies: can be done

Trace: pursue

Likely: similarly

The paragraph

1. Which of these statements best express the main idea of the passage? Give reasons for your choice:

a- The effectiveness of scientific research in industry by the general atmosphere of secrecy which surrounds it and by the lack of freedom of the individual research worker

b- Scientific research in industry is not very effective because big firms wish to keep so many processes secret.

c- Many scientific processes in industry are kept secret until they can be patterned.

The author will agree on (a)

2. The following sentences have been taken from line 6- 14. Arrange them in their correct order. Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

a- The degree of secrecy naturally varies considerably.

b- This applies particularly to chemical industries, where chance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physical and mechanical industries.

c- Some of the bigger firms are engaged in researches which are of such general and fundamental nature that it is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret.

d- Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secret processes.

e- Yet a great many processes depending on such research are sought for with complete secrecy until the age at which patents can be taken out.

The correct order is (a, c, e, d, and b)

Key structure

1. Change the form of the verbs in each of these sentences. Omit the words in italics do not refer to the passage until you have completed the exercise:

a- One is the general atmosphere of secrecy in which they carry it out.( it is carried out)

b- They seek for a great many processes with complete secrecy until the stage at which they can take out patents. (can be taken out)

c- Even more processes they never patent at all but keep as secret processes. (but kept)

d- Sometimes the secrecy goes to such an extent that they cannot mention the whole nature of the research. ( cannot be mentioned)



2. Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets in the following sentences. Do not refer to the passage until you have finished the exercise:

a- In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in( carrying ) it out

b- Many firms, for instance, have great difficulty in (obtaining) technical or scientific books from libraries.

3. Complete the following sentences using a verb after the words in italics:

a. He was engaged in typing the papers.

b. He was prevented from attending the lecture.

c. He insisted on performing the play.

d. If you persist in doing it like this, I am going to kill you.

4. Not the position of not in this sentence:

It is a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret.

Supply not in each of the following sentences:

a. told me to mention it to you

He told me not to mention it to you.

b. Please tell him to call in the morning.

Please tell him not to call him in the morning.

c. Did not I beg you to write to him?

Did not I beg you not to write to him?

5. What is the difference between these two sentences?

There are unwilling to enter their names as having taken out such and such a book.

They are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book.

Write these sentences again using the correct form of have with verbs in italics:

a. We are going to decorate this room soon.

We are going to have this room decorated.

b. I repaired this watch last year.

I am going to have my watch repaired.

C. Will you install the television in this room?

Will we have the television been installed in this room?

6. Note that in the following sentence we may use the word lest in place of for fear:

Many firms… are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such a book lest (or for fear) the agents of the other firms should be able to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.

Write two sentences using lest and for fear.

Lest, for fear: لكي لا أو خشية أن))

Every body should study hard lest to fail.

We should do a rehearsal on the play for fear to forget our roles.

Special difficulties

1. Explain the expressions in italics in the following sentence:

a. In so far as any inquiry is a secret one, in naturally limits all those engaged in carrying it out. (Doing)

b. I think we can carry on without your help. (Continue)

c. The audience was completely carried away by the wonderful performance of the soloist.

(Was so excited)

d. The government failed to carry throw the new bill on housing in the house of the commons last night.

(To complete successfully)

2. What do you understand by the phrase in italics:

They are unwilling to have their names entered as having taken out such and such a book.

Write sentence using the phrase such and such.

What was not expected is that the delegation was treated in such and such a way.
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COMPOSITION4 part-2
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