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     Teaching Methods محاضرة الدكتور جورج الاولى

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 18/06/2008

    مُساهمةموضوع: Teaching Methods محاضرة الدكتور جورج الاولى   الإثنين فبراير 23, 2009 12:34 pm

    Teaching Methods

    Certain methods are widely recognized because of their influential role in

    the history of ideas surrounding this subject.

    The Grammar Translation Method

    This method drives from the traditional approach to the teaching of Latin

    and Greek, Which was particularly influential in the 19th century. It is

    based on the meticulous analysis of the written language, in which

    translation exercises, reading comprehension, and the written imitation of

    texts play a primary role. Learning mainly involves the mastery of

    grammatical rules and memorization of long lists of literary vocabulary,

    related to texts which are chosen more for their prestigious content than for

    their interest or level of linguistic difficulty. There is little emphasis laid

    on the activities of listening or speaking. The vast majority of teachers

    now recognize that the approach does little to meet the spoken language

    needs and interests of to day's language students.

    The Direct Method:

    This approach, also known as oral or natural method, is based on the active

    involvement of the learner in speaking and listening to the foreign

    language in realistic every day situations. No use is made of the learner's

    mother tongue; learners are encouraged to think in the foreign language,

    and not to translate into or out of it. A great deal of emphasis is placed on

    good pronunciation, often introducing students to phonetic transcription

    before they use the standard orthography. Formal grammatical rules and

    terminology are avoided.

    The direct method continues to attract interest and enthusiasm, but it is not

    an easy approach to use in schoo1. In the artificial environment of the

    c1assroom, it is difficult to generate natural learning situations and to

    provide everyone with different practice. Teachers often permit some

    degree of mother-tongue explanation and grammatical statement to avoid

    learners developing inaccurate fluency ('School Pidgin').

    The Audio-lingual Method

    It is also known as the aural-oral method, this approach derives from the

    intensive training in spoken languages given to American military

    personnel during the Second world war. It resulted in a high degree of

    listening and speaking skill which was achieved in a relatively short time-

    span. The emphasis is on everyday spoken conversation, with particular

    attention being paid to natural pronunciation. Language is seen as a

    process of habit formation: structural patterns in dialogues about everyday

    situations are imitated and drilled until the leaner's responses become

    automatic. There is a special focus on areas of structural contrast between

    LI and L2. Language work is first heard, then practiced orally, before being seen and used in written form.

    The approach can instill considerable conversational fluency in a learner,

    and was widely used in the 1950s and 1960s. Its reliance on drills and

    habit-formation makes it less popular today, especially with learners who

    wish for a wider range of linguistic experience, and who feel the need for

    more creative work in speech production.

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