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 Readers and the Concept or the Implied Reader Wolfgang Iser من محاضرات الدكتور بشار

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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Readers and the Concept or the Implied Reader Wolfgang Iser من محاضرات الدكتور بشار   السبت ديسمبر 27, 2008 11:57 am

Now, the second representative of reader-response criticism is Wolfgang Iser:
P124: A little further down the line (the text-reader line), but still very much toward the textual end, we reach the position of Wolfgang iser, a German critic whose work is well known in the United States. Iser shares with many other continental critics a strong interest in phenomenology ظواهرية ، علم وصف الظواهر
(Iser is a phenomenologist), a philosophy that stresses the perceiver's role in perception and that insists it is difficult to separate the thing known (the poem) from the mind that knows it (the reader). Other European critics who share these assumptions include Roman Ingarden, Gaston Bachelard, and the "Geneva Critics" or "Critics of Consciousness," as they are sometimes called, of whom the best known to English readers is Georges Poulet. Poulet struggles to merge his "consciousness" (as a reader) with the "consciousness" of the author as that consciousness is revealed not only in a particular work but in everything the author has written, Iser's uses of phenomenology keep him much closer to the text. From another direction, although he has ties with the movement, he distances himself from the practitioners of "reception aesthetics," a line of inquiry that studies the history of a texts reception (he is not interested in the history of
,the text's perception). Iser's concern is not with "actual readers"; he is interested, instead, in

the "implied reader," a reader who "embodies all those predispositions مَيْل . استعداد . قابليّة necessary for a literary work to exercise its effect (on the reader) - predispositions laid down, not by an empirical outside reality, but by the text itself (for he is very close to the text). Consequently, the implied reader as a concept has its roots firmly planted in the structure of the text; he is a construct (a concept) and in no way to be identified with any real reader" (The Ad of Reading 34).
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P12S: Clearly, then, Iser wants to stay near the textual pole of our diagram. But he ~keeps~ a distance between himself and the formalist position as well (he is different from formalists because for him:). There can be no single best meaning that all readings must strive to approximate يُدْني . يقرِّب . يقارب (formalists believe in determinacy of meaning while Iser doesn't believe in this).,. The idea of a single meaning is not only at odds على خلاف ، مختلف مع ، with Iser's phenomenological assumptions (for phenomenology is a philosophy that concentrates on the role of the perceiver or the process of perception; so, it's the opposite of formalism), but it is equally inconsistent متضارب with his view of our experience of literature and of the value of that experience. Much of that value lies exactly in the "indeterminacy" of the text (Iser doesn't believe in single meaning but rather he believes in indeterminacy of meaning). The text, for Iser, doesn't "contain" the meaning of the poem (while for formalists textual meaning is what matters). Rather, we must "assemble" يجمع that meaning from the perspectives the texts provides (for Iser it is not the text that matters, but rather the responses that the text will provide when a reader reads it). (For example,) In a complex novel such as Joyce's

Ulysses, these perspectives are so many and varied that reconstructing the novel's meaning . is like reconstructing reality itself. And our reconstructions always remain various because they always depend more on what the reader brings to the text than the formalist's model allows.
Formalists allow only what's related to the text itself as a static object i.e. as one entity, that is why he is not a formalist.
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It is true, and here Iser would agree with the intertextual critic, that readers must bring to the text a knowledge of the appropriate conventions or codes that will allow them to decode the poem (we cannot understand the poem without these conventions or clues. In this sense he is similar to Intertextualists).
But here again Iser would insist on the poem's ability to transcendتجاوز, سما فوق the code (to go beyond the codes), to violate the conventions. It does so by presenting readers with "gaps" or "blanks" that they must bridge (the text supplies the reader with certain gaps that he must be ready to bridge; so, this is the role of the reader; in other words, reading between the line is just like having gaps in the text and the role of the reader is to fill in the gaps); in the process they have to construct, from the conventions they bring, new and unconventional غير تقليدي meanings (the readers do this by transcending the code). So the text does offer a broad base of determinate meaning, as the formalist argues (he is against formalists, he depends on the text but he doesn't forget the role of the reader; so, for him the text exists, but it cannot exist on its own), and the implied reader brings to it knowledge of the relevant conventions as the intertextuals critic claims, but the "poem itself' exists only in the interaction of the text and the reader, and the meaning that results Is reducible neither to the conventions the reader (on their own) has brought nor to the text.
The meaning results in the interaction and transaction between the text and the reader
lser's position, then, allows for more "openness" in the text and more variability in our responses than critics operating in other contexts will usually admit (he is different from formalists in that for formalists the text is not open, it is a close circle). Equally to the point, Iser finds the value of literature largely in those indeterminacies that force readers to transcend the received codes as they construct, from their interaction with the text, new meanings (readers construct new meanings when they interact and transact with the text and when they transcend codes). We should remember, though, that this value is most available to the "implied reader." Actual readers, who may lack the implied reader's mastery of the appropriate conventions and who may overlook important textual cues تلميح, إشارة, will be more likely to misinterpret the text and to produce readings outside Iser's vaguely بغُمُوضdefined but certainly fairly narrow range of permissible "meanings."
Now, let's go to Iser's essay:
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Readers and the Concept or the Implied Reader Wolfgang Iser من محاضرات الدكتور بشار
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