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 Golden Papers for Methodology

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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Golden Papers for Methodology   الجمعة يونيو 20, 2008 6:26 am

1- RESEARCH AND WRITING


- The research paper is generally based on primary research, secondary research or the combination of the two. Primary research is the study of a subject through firsthand observation and investigation. Secondary research is the examination of studies that other researchers made of a subject.
- Research increases your knowledge and understanding of a subject. It sometimes confirms your ideas and opinions; sometimes it will challenge and modify them.
- The main purpose of the research is not to summarize the work of other but to assimilate it and build on it and to arrive at your own understanding of the subject.
The Research Paper as a Form of Writing:
A research paper is a form of written communication. Like other kinds of nonfiction writing such as letters, memos, reports, essays, ect., it should present ideas and information clearly and cogently. You should not let the mechanics of gathering source materials, taking notes, and documenting sources make you forget to apply the knowledge and skills you have acquired through previous writing experiences.
Selecting a Topic:
Selecting a topic is seldom a simple matter. Even after you discover the subject which attracts your interests, you will revise your choice. However, when you choose a topic try to narrow your topic by focusing on an aspect of the subject. Then, you should check the library’s sources to see whether enough work has been done on the subject. Finally, give yourself a plenty of time to think through and rethink your choice of a topic.
Types of Reference Works:
1- Indexes: they guide you to materials in newspapers, magazines and journals as well as to writings in book collections
2- Bibliographies: are lists of related books and other materials.
3- Collections of Abstracts: Abstracts are summaries of journal articles and other literature.
4- Guides to Abstracts: Abstracts are summaries journal articles and other literature.
5- Dictionaries: are alphabetically arranged works that provide information about words or topics.
6- Encyclopedias: are works, usually arranged alphabetically, to give introductory information about subjects.
7- Biographical Sources: are information about living persons.
8- Yearbooks: provide information about individual years in the past.
9- Atlases: are collections of maps.
10- Gazetteers: provide geographic information.
11- Statistical Data Sources: are collections of statistics published by governmental agencies. Such works include annual publications.
PLAGIARISM:
Plagiarism refers to a form of cheating that has defined as “the false assumption of authorship: it is the wrongful act of taking the product of another person’s mind and presenting it as one’s own. Moreover, to avoid plagiarism you should refer to the work from which you want to quote as well as to the name of its author.
OUTLINING:
Outlining is a useful intermediate activity between research and writing. An outline will help you to get an overview of your paper and to figure out how each section of the paper relates to the other. It makes it easier for you to keep track of all important aspects of your subject and to focus your research on relevant topics.
THESIS STATEMENT:
Thesis statement is the answer for the central question or problem you have raised in your topic. Writing thesis statement will enable you to see where you are heading and to remain on the productive path as you plan and write. Moreover, two factors are important to the shaping of a thesis statement: the purpose you are trying to achieve and the audience you are writing for.
FINAL OUTLINE:
After you have a satisfactory thesis statement, you can transform your working outline into a final one. This step organizes your ideas and the accumulated research into a logical, fluent, and effective paper.
WRITING DRAFTS:
The successful research paper is usually the culminations (highest points) of a series of drafts. (1) Set down all your ideas in the order in which you want them to appear. (2) Attempt to stay focused by following your outline closely. (3) Revise the outline whenever new ideas occur to you. (4) In revising, delete any idea that seems irrelevant or unimportant. (5) Correct all technical errors checking your spelling and grammar and consulting a standard dictionary for the spelling and meaning of words.

LANGUAGE AND STYLE:
Effective writing depends as much on clarity and readability as on content. The organization and development of your ideas, the unity and coherence of your presentation, and your command of sentence structure, grammar, and diction are all important, as are the mechanics of writing – capitalization, spelling, punctuation, and so on. The key successful communication is using the right language for the audience you are addressing.


2- THE MECHANICS OF WRITINGS



SPELLING:
1- Consistency: Spelling, including hyphenation, should be consistent throughout the research paper except in quotations, which must retain the spelling of the original, whether correct or incorrect.
2- Word Division: To save time and avoid possible errors, do not divide words at the ends of the lines. If the word you are to write will not fit on the line, you may leave the line short and write the word on the next line.
3- Foreign Words: If you quote material in a foreign language, you must write it appears in the original writing.
PUNCTUATION:
The primary purpose of punctuation is to ensure the clarity and readability of writing. Punctuation clarifies sentence structure, separating some words and grouping others. It adds meaning to written words and guides the understanding of readers as they move through sentences.
1- Commas: (a) Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (but, and, for...) joining independent clauses in a sentence. (b) Use a comma to separate words, phrases and clauses in a series. (c) Use a comma between coordinate adjectives; that is, adjectives that separately modify the same noun eg. “Critics praise the novel’s unaffected, unadorned style.” (d) Use commas to set off parenthetical comment eg. ” you are, I’m sorry to say that, failure” (e) Use commas to set off nonrestrictive modifier (the modifier that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence) eg.”Scientists, who must be objective, have discovered a new planet”. (f) Use commas after a long introductory phrase or clause. (g) Use commas to set off alternative or contrasting phrases. “It was Julio, not his mother, who … (h) Don’t use commas between subject and verb or between verb and object.
2- Semicolons: use a semicolon (a) between independent clauses not linked with conjunctions. (b) between items in a series when items contain commas.
3- Colons: (a) use a colon to introduce a list or a formal expression of a rule or principle eg. “The essay includes three parts: introduction, body, and conclusion” (b) Use a colon to introduce a quotation that is independent from the structure.
4- Dashes and Parentheses: (a) Use dashes or parentheses to enclose a sentence that interrupts the train of thought (b) Use dashes or parentheses to set off parenthetical element that contains a command that might be misread if set off with commas “The color of costume—blue, yellow, and red—acquire a symbolic meaning in the story. (c) Use a dash to introduce words that summarize a preceding series “Cruelty, and acute sensitivity, greed and compassion--are…”
5- Hyphens: (a) Use a hyphen in a compound adjective beginning with an adverb when the adjective precedes the noun “well-dresses girl” (b) Don’t use a hyphen in a compound adjective beginning with an adverb ending in (ly, very or too) “too hasty judgment” (c) Use a hyphen in a compound adjective ending in present participle or past participle “hate-filled speech” (d) Use hyphens in a compound adjective formed by number and a noun and followed by noun “second-semester course” (e) Use hyphens in other compound adjectives before nouns to prevent misreading “continuing-education program”
THE USE OF WORDS OR NUMERALS:
If you are writing about literature or another subject that involves infrequent use of numbers, you may spell out numbers written in one or two words.
EXCEPTIONS FOR UNDERLINING TITLES:
The convention of using underlining and quotation marks to indicate titles does not apply to the names of sacred writings, of law, acts, political documents, buildings, societies, monuments, conferences. “Koran, Bible, Magna Carta …”
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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Golden Papers for Methodology   الجمعة يونيو 20, 2008 4:27 pm

شكراا على الموضوع lol! Basketball
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تاريخ التسجيل : 02/10/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Golden Papers for Methodology   الخميس أكتوبر 02, 2008 11:08 am

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Golden Papers for Methodology
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