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 Applied Linguistics: محاضرات الدكتور جورج

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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/06/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Applied Linguistics: محاضرات الدكتور جورج   الأحد نوفمبر 23, 2008 6:10 am


Linguistics
Language has been an object of fascination and a subject of serious enquiry for over 2,000 years. From the earliest periods, there has been an objective approach, with scholars investigating aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation in a detailed and organised way. At the end of the 18th century, the subject attracted an increasing number of specialists, so -much so that it rapidly became possible to see the emergence of a new field of scientific research with language analysis as its focus. This approach is first known as philology, dealt exclusively with the historical development of language. In the present century, the subject has broadened to include the whole range of subject matters related to language. It is now generally called linguistics (or linguistic science). Linguistics today is widely practised academic discipline, with several domains of application.

As an academic discipline, the development of this subject has been recent and rapid, having become particularly widely known and taught in the 1960s. This reflects partly an increased popular and specialist interest in the study of language and communication in relation to human beliefs and behaviour (e.g.
in theology, philosophy, information theory, literary criticism), and the realisation of the need for a separate discipline to deal adequately with the range and complexity of linguistic phenomena.

Different branches may be distinguished according to the linguist's focus and interest:
. Diachronic and Synchronic Linguistics The former refers to the study of language change (also called historical linguistics ) and the latter to the study of the state of language at a given point in time.

. General Linguistics or Theoretical Linguistics It establishes general principles for the study of all languages and determines the characteristics of human language as a phenomenon.

· Descriptive Linguistics It concentrates on establishing the facts of a particular language system.
· Contrastive Linguistics Its purpose is to focus on the differences between languages, especially in a language-teaching context.

· Comparative (or Typological) Linguistics Its purpose is primarily to identify the common characteristics of different languages or language families.

In recent years the term linguistic sciences has come to be used by many as single label for both linguistics and phonetics - the latter being seen here as a strictly pre-Language study. Equally.
there are many who do not see the division between linguistic and phonetics being as great as this label suggests: they would be quite happy. to characterize the subject as linguistic science.
'Linguistics' is still the preferred name.

The overlapping interests of linguistics and other disciplines has led to the setting up of new branches of the subject in both pure and applied contexts, such as anthropological linguistics, biolinguistics, neurolinguistics, clinical linguistics, computational linguistics, educational linguistics, ethno linguistics, mathematical linguistics, philosophical linguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, statistical linguistics. When the subject's findings, methods, or theoretical principles are applied to the study of problems from other areas of experience, one talks of applied linguistics; this term is often restricted to the study of the theory and methodology of foreign language teaching.
Applied Linguistics:

A branch ,of linguistics where the primary concern -application of linguistic theories, methods and findings t elucidation of language problems 'which have arisen in other areas of experience. The most well-developed branch of applied linguistics is the teaching and learning of foreign languages, an sometimes the term is used as if this were the only field involved. But several other fields of application have emerged in recent years, including the linguistic analysis of language disorders (Clinical Linguistics), the use of language in mother tongue education (Educational Linguistics), and developments in lexicography, translation and stylistics. There is uncertain boundary between applied linguistics and the various interdisciplinary branches of linguistics, such as sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics.

Clinical Linguistics:

A term used for the application of linguistic theories; me and descriptive findings to the analysis of medical con" .
settings involving a disorder of language. This a involves the linguist working in collaboration with 5 pathologists/ therapists, audiologists and others in help' assess, diagnose and remediate disorders of the production comprehension of spoken or written language - disorders which occur in educational as well as clinical settings. The relevance of psycholinguistics , neurolinguistics and language acquisition studies to this end is note worthy.

Educational Linguistics:

A term used for the application of linguistic theories, method and descriptive findings to the study of teaching/learning of a mother-tongue in schools and other educational settings.
Specific topics of interest include the study of reading an writing, accent and dialect, and the teaching of linguistics.
grammar, etc.
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